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求学网 >> 英语网 >> 考研英语

印度新政府

  2015复习正是强化复习阶段,在考研英语中占了40分,所以考研英语阅读是英语科目中重要的一项。名师老师曾建议过考研生需要坚持每天泛读10-15分钟的英文原刊。强烈推荐了杂志《经济学人》.杂志中的文章也是考研英语的主要材料来源.希望考研考生认真阅读,快速提高考英语阅读水平。   India s new government   印度新政府   Kick-starting India   一剂强心剂   India s new government must get the economyworking again. Here s how   印度新政府必须让国家经济回归正轨,来看看需要怎么做。   INDIA S mammoth, five-week election, involvinghundreds of millions of voters, is over. Official results were due as The Economist went topress. A new government will be formed in the coming days. Exit polls point to the BharatiyaJanata Party swooping back to power after a decade in opposition. Narendra Modi, itsleader, is set to be prime minister. Investors are excited by that prospect. They like his pastin running the business-friendly state of Gujarat and his talk of vikas in the campaign.   印度为期五周,超过百万人参与投票的国家大选终于落下帷幕。本期经济学人杂志出版正值官方结果出炉。在未来的日子里,印度将组建新的政府。出口民调显示,印度人民党在野十年后将重掌政权,人民党领袖纳伦德拉莫迪将任总理。投资人深受这一消息的鼓舞。莫迪过去在管理古吉拉特邦时实行的商业友好策略以及在大选进程中发表的关于维卡斯公司发展的言论都受到投资人的欢迎。   Whoever becomes prime minister faces a long to-do list that includes everything fromgetting along with Pakistan to dealing with iron-ore mafias. But the priority must berepairing what by some measures is the world s third-largest economy. This is the key tolifting hundreds of millions of people from poverty and creating jobs for India s young andhungry population. It is a huge task.   无论谁当选总理,都面临着一长串的任务清单,这个清单包罗万象,从与巴基斯坦重修旧好到处理操纵铁矿石交易的黑手党。然而首要任务一定是修整这个从某种标准上算是世界第三大经济体的国家,这是解救数以亿计的贫困人口为青年和饥饿人群创造就业岗位的关键。这个任务无比艰巨。   A lost half-decade   失落的五年   A decade ago India s economy was winning new-found respect as a riot of energy andenterprise, but its performance in recent years has been dismal. Now foreign bosses rolltheir eyes when you mention India, as they did in the 1980s. Growth has fallen to 5%, halfthe level at the peak of the 2004-08 boom. Inflation and public borrowing are too high. Therupee slumped in 2013. Private firms are fed up with red tape and graft and have cutinvestment from a peak of 17% of GDP to 9%. On some measures the country is goingbackwards in time. Households have been shifting savings away from banks into the ancientrefuge of gold. In a country that should be industrialising, the contribution to GDP fromindustry has been declining while manufacturing jobs have stagnated.   十年前,依附于能源和企业的迅猛发展,印度经济赢得了世界上新鲜目光的瞩目,然而近年来表现却越发不堪。现在,提到印度时,外商会像上世纪八十年代一样翻起白眼。印度的增长率下滑到5%,是它2004-08巅峰时期的一半。通货膨胀和公开借贷双双过高,2013年,卢比遭到严重贬值。私营企业对政府的繁文缛节和贪污受贿厌倦透顶,表现在投资上就是投资额在GDP中占比从17%的高峰下滑到9%。从某些方面来说,印度已经在走下坡路。家家户户都急于从银行提现并把存款转换为古老的黄金以寻求避难。作为一个工业化国家,印度工业对GDP的贡献率已经开始下滑,制造业的就业也陷于停滞。   The last government dithered and was preoccupied with bolstering India s welfare state.India s new rulers must be more strategic and ruthless. Their task has three parts.   上一届政府犹犹豫豫,一心想着把印度变为一个福利国家。新一届政策制定者应当表现的更有战略性和大胆无情。他们的任务有三方面。   First, they must tackle India s rotten banks. That might sound like a technical quibbleitis anything but. Bad debts have soared as the economy has slowed and infrastructure projectshave got snared by red tape. Banks have chosen to extend and pretend loans to zombiefirms. The cost of cleaning up banks balance sheets could be as high as 4% of GDPslightlylarger, in relative terms, than Wall Street s bail out. But until the banks are fit enough tofinance a new cycle of investment, no recovery will happen. Deeper financial reform isvital, too. Banks are forced to buy government bonds, giving politicians a blank cheque toborrow. Limiting that would help end the habit of reckless public deficits.   首先需要处理的是的腐朽的银行业。这听起来可能像诡辩,但事实确是如此。经济下滑和基建项目被红头文件搁置导致了坏账的猛增,而银行却假装继续给僵尸企业提供贷款。清理银行资产负债表的成本可能达到GDP的4%,比起华尔街的保释要相对多一些。但是,复苏必须等到银行能够进行新一轮的投融资才有可能发生。深入的金融改革也是十分必要的。现在的银行被迫购买国债,这样政客就能够借到空头支票,而限制这个过程能够帮助政府终结轻率产生的赤字。   Second, a destabilising cycle of stagflation must be broken. High public borrowing has fuelledinflation, which stands at 9%. To protect their savings, households have bought gold fromabroad, blowing a hole in the balance of payments. The new government must cut wastefulspending on subsidies of food and fuel. But the main reason why India has not run a budgetsurplus since independence in 1947 is that its tax base is puny. So the government mustbring more of the economy into the tax net in order to repair the public finances.   第二点,必须打破不稳定的滞涨循环。高公债刺激了通货膨胀,当前已经达到9%。家庭为了保护存款从国外购买黄金,这样就在收支平衡表上留下了一个漏洞。新政府必须削减不必要的食品和燃料补贴。但是印度自1947年独立以来就没有过预算盈余的主要原因在它薄弱的课税基础。因此,政府应当将更多的经济活动纳入税网来恢复公共财政。   Slaying stagflation also requires tough action from the central bank. Its chief, RaghuramRajan, wants an inflation targeting regime. The government should back him and try topersuade him to stay in the job. To cut high food prices, it should abolish the state-runagricultural markets that are often in the hands of powerful locals who hoard farmers produce.   遏制滞涨还需要央行采取强硬行动。央行行长拉加恩希望有一个针对通货膨胀的机制,政府应当给予支持并把他稳定在行长的位子上。考虑到国营农产品市场通常都被从农民手中积聚农产品的有财力的当地人操控,政府应当废除这一市场来降低过高的食品价格。   India s not working   印度的不作为   Creating more decent jobs is the new government s third and most important task. Over thepast half century most East Asian countries have prospered by employing unskilledfarmworkers in factories. India should be doing that right now. Over 10m people a year willenter the workforce for the next decade. Labour costs are rising in China, leading firms toshift production elsewhere. Japanese companies are scrambling to diversify away fromChina as military tensions crackle. The rupee has fallen by a third against the yuan since2010, making India s workers more competitive.   新政府第三个也是最重要的任务是制造更多体面的就业岗位。过去的半个世纪以来多数东亚国家都是通过在工厂里雇佣无需技能的农场工人来致富,印度也应当这么做。接下来的十年里会有超过千万人加入劳动力大军。中国的劳动力成本的升高导致企业纷纷另觅厂房;随着军事紧张的局势破表,日本企业争相逃离中国;2010年以来,卢比兑人民币已经贬值了三分之一,这种情况下印度的劳动力将更有竞争力。   So far India has blown it. For firms wanting to invest, access to the ingredients ofproductionenergy, labour and landis uncertain and expensive. The taxation of foreigncompanies is a lottery. As a result, firms such as Li Fung, which sources textiles andtoys for America s supermarkets, say that factories are shifting to Bangladesh, South-EastAsia and Africa, not India.   然而到目前为止,印度都搞砸了。对于想投资的企业来说,包括能源、劳力和土地在内的产品原料都太贵和太不确定。加上对外资公司的课税模式捉摸不定,造成的结果就是,像利丰集团这样为美国超市提供纺织品和玩具外包的企业把工厂转移到了孟加拉、东南亚和非洲,而不是印度。   If India is to be in the running as a manufacturing centre, the new government must restorethe country s reputation as a place to do business. In some areas less government isneeded: archaic labour laws should be abolished. In others a stronger state is required tosupply reliable electricity or enforce contracts to let firms buy land. Through both, thereneeds to be a big drive to create clusters of manufacturing.   如果印度真想做制造中心,新政府就一定要重新建立起该国是个做生意的好地方的名声。在某些领域上,政府可以减少参与,比如陈旧的劳动法应当被废除。在其他领域里,政府需要扮演强大的角色,提供可靠的电力并巩固合约,以此鼓励企业买地。双管齐下的同时还需要有强劲的驱动力来牵引出一个个制造业集群。   India can go in one of two directions. It can watch its position in the world decline as itsinfrastructure lags further behind and its army of underemployed people grows. Or it canstabilise its finances and build a productive private sector that creates the jobs its youngpeople need and turns it into a serious global power. The choice is the new government s.   印度有两条路可走。它可以忍受基础设施远远落后、失业人群不断增长,并亲眼目睹自身的世界地位渐渐没落,或者它可以稳定财政并建造一个富有成效的私营部门来为年轻人创造就业岗位,从而变成一个正经的全球性大国。选择权在新政府。   词语解释   1.get along with 进展;与和睦相处   Do you get along with your parents now?   那你现在和父母相处得怎么样呢?   You should try to get along with them.   你应该试着和她们好好相处。   2.deal with 与交易;应付   How would you deal with an armed burglar?   你怎样对付闯进来的持有武器的强盗?   So how should you deal with a braggart?   那么应该怎么对待一个吹牛的人呢?   3.fed up with 受够   Fed up with the futility of the 2012 environment, the consortium moved decisively.   受够了徒劳无功的2012时代之后,财团采取了决定性的行动。   At times I get fed up with her.   有时候我觉得我都受够了它。   4.choose to 选择   Also unclear is how much debt time warner will choose to assign to its former unit.   另外,人们也不清楚时代华纳将会选择让这家前子公司承担多少债务。   Each time you choose to take a stand for partnership, that is going to be visible.   每次面对合作时你选择的立场都会被别人看在眼里。

  

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